1. Singh M. Opening address to the third South Asian conference on sanitation, New Delhi, 18 November 2008. 2008. Available: http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=44884. Accessed 15 July 2010.
2. Esrey SA, Potash JB, Roberts L, Shiff C. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull World Health Organ. 1991;69:609–621.[PMC free article][PubMed]
3. Merchant AT, Jones C, Kiure A, Kupka R, Fitzmaurice G, et al. Water and sanitation associated with improved child growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:1562–1568.[PubMed]
4. WHO, UNICEF. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water – 2010 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. 60
5. Chadwick E. Report on an inquiry into the sanitary condition of the labouring population of Great Britain. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; 1842. 279
6. Ferriman A. BMJ readers choose the ‘sanitary revolution’ as greatest medical advance since 1840. BMJ. 2007;334:111.
8. WHO. Creating healthy cities in the 21st century. In: Satterthwaite D, editor. The Earthscan reader on sustainable cities. London: Earthscan Publications; 1999. pp. 137–172.
9. Feachem RG, Bradley DJ, Garelick H, Mara DD. Sanitation and disease. Health aspects of wastewater and excreta management. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1983. 326
10. Wagner EG, Lanoix JN. Excreta disposal in rural areas and small communities. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1958. 327 [PubMed]
11. Mathers CD, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. The burden of disease and mortality by condition: data, methods, and results for 2001. In: Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL, editors. Global burden of disease and risk factors. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. pp. 45–240. [PubMed]
12. Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:197–204.[PMC free article][PubMed]
13. Black R, Cousens S, Johnson H, Lawn J, Rudan I, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:1969–1987.[PubMed]
14. Fewtrell L, Kaufmann RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, et al. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:42–52.[PubMed]
15. Esrey SA, Gough J, Rapaport D, et al. Ecological sanitation. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; 1998. 100
16. Waddington H, Snilstveit B. Effectiveness and sustainability of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in combating diarrhoea. J Dev Effect. 2009;1:295–335.
17. Barreto ML, Genser B, Strina A, Teixera MG, Assis AM, et al. Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies. Lancet. 2007;370:1622–28.[PMC free article][PubMed]
18. Norman G, Pedley S, Takkouche B. Effects of sewerage on diarrhoea and enteric infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:536–44.[PubMed]
19. Genser B, Strina A, Teles CA, Prado MS, Barreto ML. Risk factors for childhood diarrhea incidence: dynamic analysis of a longitudinal study. Epidemiology. 2006;17:658–67.[PubMed]
20. Lanata CF, Huttly SR, Yeager BA. Diarrhea – whose faeces matter? Reflections from studies in a Peruvian shanty town. J Paediatr Infect Dis. 1998;17:7–9.[PubMed]
21. Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1018–1027.[PubMed]
22. Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya'ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, et al. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:844–851.[PMC free article][PubMed]
23. Melese M, Alemayehu W, Lakew T, Yi I, House J, et al. Comparison of annual and biannual mass antibiotic administration for elimination of infectious trachoma. JAMA. 2008;299:778–784.[PubMed]
24. Cook JA. Eliminating blinding trachoma. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1777–1799.[PubMed]
25. Emerson PM, Lindsay SW, Alexander N, Bah M, Dibba SM, et al. Role of flies and provision of latrines in trachoma control: cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;363:1093–1098.[PubMed]
26. de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, et al. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol. 2004;19:547–551.[PubMed]
27. Stephenson LS, Latham MC, Ottesen EA. Malnutrition and parasitic helminth infections. Parasitology. 2000;121:23–28.[PubMed]
28. Hotez PJ, Bundy DAP, Beegle K, et al. Helminth infections: soil–transmitted helminth infections and schistosomiasis. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne G, Claeson M, editors. Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. pp. 467–82. [PubMed]
29. Albonico M, Montresor A, Crompton DWT, Savioli L. Intervention for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the community. Trends Parasitol. 2006;61:311–48.[PMC free article][PubMed]
30. WHO. Global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008; 2008. 160
31. WHO. Acute respiratory infections (update February 2009). 2009. Available: http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/ari/en/index.html. Accessed 15 July 2010.
32. Schmidt WP, Cairncross S, Barreto ML, Clasen T, Genser B. Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:766–72.[PMC free article][PubMed]
33. World Bank. Environmental health and child survival: epidemiology, economics, experience. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2008. 135
34. Blössner M, de Onis M. Malnutrition: quantifying the health impact at national and local levels. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. 51
35. Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet. 2008;371:340–57.[PMC free article][PubMed]
36. Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. Listening. Geneva: Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council; 2003. 81
37. Jenkins MW, Curtis V. Achieving the ‘good life’: Why some people want latrines in rural Benin. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:2446–59.[PubMed]
38. Jenkins MW, Scott B. Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64:2427–42.[PubMed]
39. Mahon T, Fernandes M. Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes. Gend Dev. 2010;18:1, 99–113.
40. Hutton G, Haller L, Bartram J. Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of low-cost household drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to countries off-track to meet MDG target 10. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. 68
41. Hutton G, Haller H. Evaluation of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. 87
42. UNDP 2006 Human Development Report 2006: Beyond scarcity – Power, poverty and the global water crisis. New York: United Nations Development Programme; 440
43. Hutton G. Economic impacts of sanitation in Lao PDR. Jakarta: World Bank and Water & Sanitation Program; 2009. 49
44. Cairncross S, Valdmanis V. Water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors. Disease control priorities in developing countries, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. pp. 771–792.
45. George R. The big necessity. Adventures in the world of human waste. London: Portobello Books; 2008. 272
46. Robinson AJ. Scaling-up rural sanitation in South Asia. Lessons learned from Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program, South Asia; 2005. 136
47. Sanan D, Moulik SG. Community-led total sanitation in rural areas. An approach that works. Washington, DC: Water and Sanitation Program; 2007. 12
48. Salter D. Identifying constraints to increasing sanitation coverage: sanitation demand and supply in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Water and Sanitation Program; 2008. 24
49. Gil A, Lanata C, Kleinau E, Penny M. Children's feces disposal practices in developing countries and interventions to prevent diarrheal diseases. A literature review. Arlington, VA: Environmental Health Project at USAID; 2004. 75
50. International Year of Sanitation. 2008. Available: http://esa.un.org/iys/. Accessed 15 July 2010.
51. School of Civic Engineering, University of Leeds. Declarations of the regional sanitation conferences. 2010. Available: http://www.personal.leeds.ac.uk/~cen6ddm/SanitationDeclarations.html. Accessed 15 July 2010.
52. Kar K, Chambers J. Handbook on community-led total sanitation. London: Plan International UK; 2008. 51
53. Robinson A. Total sanitation. Reaching the parts that other approaches can't reach? Waterlines. 2006;25:8–10.
54. Mukherjee N, Shatifan N. The CLTS story in Indonesia. Empowering communities, transforming institutions, furthering decentralization. 2008. Available: http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/resource/clts-story-indonesia-empowering-communities-transforming-institutions-furthering-decentrali. Accessed 15 July 2010.
55. Waterkeyn J, Cairncross S. Creating demand for sanitation and hygiene through Community Health Clubs: a cost-effective intervention in two districts of Zimbabwe. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:1958–1970.[PubMed]
56. Practical Action Consulting. Bangladesh rural sanitation supply chain and employment impact. New York: UNDP; 2006. 11
57. Blackett I. Low-cost urban sanitation in Lesotho. Washington, DC: World Bank; 1994. 53
58. Sugden S. An assessment of mechanical pit emptying services in Maputo. London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; 2005.
59. Melo JC. The experience of condominial water and sewerage systems in Brazil. Case studies from Brasília, Salvador and Parauapebas. Lima: Water and Sanitation Program Latin America; 2005. 62
60. Burra S, Patel S, Kerr T. Community-designed, built and managed toilet blocks in Indian cities. Environ Urban. 2003;15:11–32.
61. Terefe B, Welle K. Policy and institutional factors affecting formulation and implementation of sanitation and hygiene strategy. A case study from the Southern Nations Region (‘SNNPR’) of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: RiPPLE; 2008. 42
62. Bibby S, Knapp A. From burden to communal responsibility. A sanitation success story from Southern Region in Ethiopia. Nairobi: Water and Sanitation Program; 2007. 12
63. Mariotti SP, Prüss A. The SAFE strategy: Preventing trachoma – A guide for environmental sanitation and improved hygiene. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000. 36
64. Rothschild M. Carrots, sticks and promises: a conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors. Journal of Marketing. 1999;63:24–27.
65. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7017046.stm (accessed 15 July 2010)
66. The Lancet. Keeping sanitation in the international spotlight. Lancet. 2008;371:1045.[PubMed]
67. IRC. WASHCost. 2010www.irc.nl/page/39103 (accessed 15 July 2010)
68. WHO, UNICEF. Global water supply and sanitation assessment 2000 report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000. 87
69. Declaration of Alma-Ata. International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6–12 September. 1978. Available: http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2010. [PubMed]
New Zealand is renowned for its natural environment – beautiful beaches, movie-set mountains and pristine national parks. But though it makes for a good postcard, it doesn’t show the full picture of how we interact with our environment or the risk we run of ruining it for future generations.
As part of our theme of Impact, The Wireless looks at seven environmental threats the country faces: overfishing, waste, water degradation, fracking, air pollution, pests and erosion.
The fishing industry contributes an average of over $1.3 billion in export earnings to the New Zealand economy each year and 424,693 tonnes of fish were caught commercially in 2009. Commercial fishing and trawling are thought to have the greatest overall impact on New Zealand’s marine resources and, if unmonitored, have the potential to impact habitats and deplete fish populations.
Tasman Bay in Nelson suffered from major over-fishing in the late 1970s when vast numbers of spawning snapper were taken by pair trawlers in the bay. The region has implemented tight restrictions to prevent this occurring again.
In New Zealand, land filling is the most common method of solid waste disposal with the most recent annual figure of 3.2 million tonnes of waste being sent to municipal landfills. Programmes to minimise the impact of waste disposal in New Zealand’s focusses on the ‘5Rs’ of reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, and manage residual waste.
The degradation of rivers and lakes has potential risks for New Zealand’s ecosystems, for the economy, for food gathering and for the country’s international reputation. There have been strong increasing trends in phosphorus and nitrogen, particularly in catchments predominantly in farm land.
WATCH: We asked your opinions on the quality of water in New Zealand’s rivers.
Approximately $500 million of government and community money is currently committed to the clean-up of lakes, rivers and streams in New Zealand.
Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, involves the injecting of chemicals into the earth at high pressure to extract previously inaccessible oil and gas. The practice is controversial, with polarised views about its impact on the natural environment.
In New Zealand, the practice is mostly used in Taranaki and the amount of gas and oil extracted using the method is rising. Exploration has occurred in the Waikato region and could spread to other parts of the country if oil is discovered in significant quantities, though the Christchurch City Council voted unanimously to declare it a fracking-free zone.
In New Zealand cities, air contaminants are attributed to a high dependence on private vehicle usage and inefficient heating. Higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere contribute to greater health problems, including respiratory problems, asthma attacks and reduced immunity.
Stoats and rats pose a growing threat to New Zealand’s native bird population. This year, between $9 million and $12 million will be spent on the largest ever pest control programme covering 700,000 hectares.
The nesting Westland petrel are at high risk of predation and only around 4,000 birds exist in the Punakaiki area of the South Island’s West Coast. Te Papa researcher Susan Waugh is studying the birds and how the deomgraphics are changing over time.
The Ministry for the Environment says accelerated erosion is “the most serious and the least reversible of soil degradation problems”. Many forms of erosion exist in New Zealand including mass movement due to heavy rain and storms, surface caused by wind detaching soil particles from the surface and streambank that occurs when banks have been cleared of tree cover.
This content is brought to you with funding assistance from New Zealand On Air.
Cover image from Photo New Zealand.