Subhash Chandra Bose
Essay No. 01
“Give me blood and I will give you freedom.” It was Subhash Chandra Bose who said these words. The slogan ‘ Jai Hind’ which is on the lips of every Indian is also the contribution of our beloved leader. Subhash Chandra Bose. Such was his popularity amongst the common man that he was called ‘Netaji’.
He was born on January 23, 1897. His mother was a pious lady and wise mother who paid all heed to bringing up her child –Subhash. The name of Bose’s mother was Prabhawati. She was a very religious lady. His father Rai Bahadur. Janki Nath was the chairman of Cuttack. He was a man of national view. He gave up his title of Rai Bahadur in 1930 as an opposition to the English cruelty in Indian. He lied Swadesh. So his on Subhash also had national views from childhood. His father was a famous lawyer so he had a comfortable childhood. His parents spared no efforts for his education.
At school he was most intelligent in his class. As a child he showed his future greatness when an English Professor made some rude remarks about Indians. Bose could not tolerate them. He beat the Professor when he was only a student of tenth class. For this he was expelled from the college. From his childhood he used to slip into neighbouring villages for a day or two. After had a thirst for spiritual knowledge. He joined she Scottish Church College to continue his study. From there he passed his B.A. in 1919. Then he went to England and passed the I.C.S. examination. At this time non – cooperation movement was going on in India. Bose decided to serve his country. So he resigned from the I.C.S. post.
The simple living and high thinking of C.R. Das deeply affected Bose in 1921. During Non- cooperation Movement of Gandhiji, he became the Principal of the National College founded by C.R. Das for Indian students. he then boycotted the arrival of Prince of Wales in Bengal. He was arrested and was sent to jail. When congress contrasted elections in 1922, he edited the paper ‘ Forward’ to help Congress, Khadi and Charkha. He worked as Executive Officer in Calcutta Corporation when C.R. Das was Mayor. Bose was again arrested and was sent to jail without trial. From all over the country there was a great cry against this act of government. He was released in 1927.
In 1928 he again boycotted Simon Commission and he was again sent to jail. When he fell ill, the public forced the government to leave him. He went to Switzerland for treatment. He met big leaders there. As he came in India, he was sent to jail. In 1938 the country elected him President of Haripura Congress session due to his services and sacrifice for his country.
Owing to difference with congress in method of taking independence, he left the President ship. He then organized forward Bloc. In 1940 he was again sent to jail for opposing Holwell Memorial at Calcutta. Again being sick, he was kept in a house under guard. He wanted freedom of India by his own military method, so he escaped in the disguise of an Afghan. Escaping at many places form British C.I.D, he reached Germany to seek help. Hitler received him warmly and promised all possible help. he gave Netaji military training for two years. Now he became a good General . while in Germany he raised the Indian National Army form the Indian war prisoners. He came to Japan to be nearer to India. Here he also raised the army. It was said the number of I.N.A. was five lacs in total. The moral and discipline of I.N.A. was very high. All were ready to do or die. With this army Netaji attacked India from the side of Assam. He won Singhpore, Kohima and Imphal – the border of India. Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs – all were under his banner without any difference caste and creed. The goal of all was Delhi. The enemy of all was British. The slogan of all was Jai Hind.
He wanted to make India free with use of violence. He wanted to free India with his army I.N.A at that time Second world War was going on. But fortune did not favour Bose. Japan surrendered in 1945. Bose flew to Japan in an acroplane. Unfortunately it creshed and Bose died. But still today we do not believe in this crash. We are hoping for a good news.
Bose was a born rebel and a born leader of men. He was a great organizer. No one loved India more than he. Gandhiji called him ‘ a patriot among patriots.’ His death is a mystery. Even today Indians are waiting for a good news regarding beloved leader – Netaji.
Essay No. 2
Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose was one of the greatest freedom fighters of India. He was born on Jan. 23, 1897 at Cuttack in Orissa. His father, Jankinath Bose was a renowned lawyer of the area. His mother, Prabhavati was a highly learned religiously minded lady.
Subhash Chandra imbibed many of his religious views from her. Some other persons who influenced him greatly were his teacher Beni Prasad Madho, C.R. Das and Swami Vivekananda.
He was a very intelligent, precocious, patriotic child with revolutionary ideas in his mind from the very beginning. He did his graduation from the Presidency college in 1919. Later, he appeared and passed the ICS examination only to please his father. But actually his heart was framed for serving his motherland and getting it liberated from the foreign rule.
In Bengal, the National Movement was being spearheaded by ,.R. Das and Subhash Chandra was especially attracted towards him. The young Subhash arranged demonstration in Calcutta and was put behind the bars. Later he had to be released. He was appointed the chief Executive officer of the Calcutta Corporation.
Earlier in 1924, he had been arrested under the special ordinance and sent to Mandalay.
He was elected President of the congress at the 1938 Haripur Session. Thereafter he formed the forward Bloc. Actually he was in favor of fixing a deadline for freedom and giving an ultimatum to the British govt. to leave India. He led the Indian National Army on July. 2, 1943 he gave the famous slogan “Delhi Chalo” His words, “Give me your blood and I will give you freedom” can never be forgotten by his countrymen.
He went in disguise as a path a first to Germany and then managed to reach Japan. The radio Tokyo declared that Netaji died in an air crash in 1945. His death is still a matter of controversy for some people.
Essay No. 3
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is known as a great Indian leader, and patriot. He sacrificed his life for the freedom of the country. He was a man with steel temper Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose loved his country and countrymen more than his life.
Netaji was born on 23rd January, 1897 in Cuttack. Sri Janki Nath Bose, his father was an advocate and a well to do person. He was seventh son of his father. Netaji got his early education up to matriculation in Cuttack, after it he joined Calcutta Presidency College. He got 1st division in graduation from there.
Netaji carried out his further education in Cambridge University at England. He got trips from that University, he passed I.C.S. examination meritoriously by topping the list.
He joined the British Government service in Calcutta which he disliked and resigned. Netaji joined Indian National Congress in 1923, he was elected in 1939 the President of the same in the face of still opposition of Gandhiji and Nehruji. Subhash Chandra Bose had more aggressive and revolutionary feelings and hence different from Mahatma Gandhi. Subhash Chandra Bose established a ‘Forward Block Party’ very soon.
He believed in the political moral ‘our enemies’ , enemy is a friend of us’. Hence India should establish friendship with Germany and its dictorial ruler – Hitler. So he reached Germany and impressed the bulfying giant personality. Hitler promised to give him help in his struggle for freedom from British Yoke. He formed Indian National Army of high Principles and morals. In this Azad Hind Fauj Indian prisoners of war, courageous and brave youths joined in great numbers. He made a whirlwind tour of Malaya and Singapore people donated freely and happily, gold and money. Azad Hindi Fauj currency was sold to make it a legal tender in free India. He said to the people, “ if you give me blood I shall give freedom to you”. He inspired the Indian National Army ‘ Delhi is not far, march on to Delhi”. Men and women in great numbers joined Indian National Army.
Under the supreme command of Netaji the I.N.A forces attacked on British forces in Assam and conquered some parts of India territory under British rule.
Nataji escaped but his other generals and army men were taken to prison. The plane in which Netaji was escaping crashed but his death remained a mystery.
In his demise a brave fighter to the highest order and close friend of masses was lost by the nation. But he did not believe in the non- violence creed of Gandhiji. Netaji was a great patriot and powerful person of strong character.
Essay No. 04
Subhash Chandra Bose
India: Freedom Fighter
Birth : 1897 Death : 1945
Subhash Chandra Bose was a great patriot and a determined fighter of national freedom. Unlike other prominent leaders of the freedom struggle, Gandhi and Nehrti, Subhash strongly believed that an armed rebellion was necessary to wrest independence from the British. These leaders wanted the struggle for independence to be peaceful. Subhash was imbued with patriotic fervour even as a child and selfless service became a strong trait of his character. Subhash was very brilliant in his studies. After doing B.A. (Hons.) in first class, he competed for and qualified the I.C.S. examination. But by being in I.C.S., he did not want to serve the imperial government and so resigned from this service. He now jumped into the vortex of freedom struggle and became an active Congress worker. However, on account of his differences with Gandhiji, he left Congress. During the freedom struggle, Subhash was arrested for his revolutionary activities. He escaped from jail and went to Japan where with Japanese help he formed the ‘Indian National Army’ (1943), and also the ‘Provisional Government of India’.
Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as ‘Netaji’ was born at Cuttack (Orissa) in a reputed family. When he was just five, he started learning English. As a youngman, Subhash was drawn into national service and was imprisoned several times for his patriotic activities. In 1943, he organized the Indian National Army (I.N.A.). In 1945, I.N.A. invaded India from the North East to force the British to leave the country. This effort did not succeed, yet, it compelled the British rulers to concede an early independence to India. It is generally believed that Subhash died in an air accident in 1945, but it is still a controversy.
He gave to the nation the salutation and slogan of ‘Jai Hind’. The famous words of Subhash are “Give me blood, I will give you freedom”.
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Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was an important leader of Indian independence movement. This Biography profiles his childhood, life, achievements and death.
Born: January 23, 1897
Place of Birth: Cuttack, Orissa
Parents: Janakinath Bose (father) and Prabhavati Devi (mother)
Spouse: Emily Schenkl
Children: Anita Bose Pfaff
Education: Ravenshaw Collegiate School, Cuttack; Presidency College, Calcutta; University of Cambridge, England
Associations: Indian National Congress; Forward Bloc; Indian National Army
Movements: Indian Freedom Movement
Political Ideology: Nationalism; Communism; Fascism-inclined;
Religious Beliefs: Hinduism
Publications: The Indian Struggle (1920–1942)
Death: August 18, 1945
Memorial: Renk?ji Temple, Tokyo, Japan; Netaji Bhawan, Kolkata, India
Image Credit: http://www.mourningtheancient.com/truth-bose1i.jpg
Subhash Chandra Bose was one of the most celebrated freedom fighters of India. He was a charismatic influencer of the youth and earned the epithet ‘Netaji’ by establishing and leading the Indian National Army (INA) during India’s struggle for independence. Although initially aligned with the Indian National Congress, he was ousted from the party due to his difference in ideology. He sought assistance from Nazi leadership in Germany and Imperial forces in Japan during the World War II, to overthrow the British from India. His sudden disappearance post 1945, led to surfacing of various theories, concerning the possibilities of his survival.
Childhood & Early Life
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Subhash was the ninth child among eight brothers and six sisters. His father, Janakinath Bose, was an affluent and successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of "Rai Bahadur". He later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.
Subhash Chandra Bose was a brilliant student. He passed his B.A. in Philosophy from the Presidency College in Calcutta. He was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. In an incident where Bose beat up his professor (E.F. Otten) for his racist remarks, brought him notoriety as a rebel-Indian in eyes of the government. His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and therefore, sent him to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination. Bose was placed fourth with highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was intense and in April 1921, he resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came back to India. In December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales' visit to India.
During his stay in Berlin, he met and fell in love with Emily Schenkl, who was of Austrian origin. Bose and Emily were married in 1937 in a secret Hindu ceremony and Emily gave birth to a daughter Anita in 1942. Shortly after the birth of their daughter, Bose left Germany in 1943 to come back to India.
Image Credit: http://images.jagran.com/SubhashB_2201.jpg
Association with Indian National Congress
Initially, Subhash Chandra Bose worked under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das, an active member of the Congress in Calcutta. It was Chittaranjan Das, who along with Motilal Nehru, left Congress and founded the Swaraj Party in 1922. Bose regarded Chittaranjan Das as his political guru. He himself started the newspaper ‘Swaraj’, edited Das’ newspaper ‘Forward’ and worked as the CEO of Calcutta Municipal Corporation under Das’ stint as Mayor. Subhash Chandra Bose played an important role in enlightening the students, youths and labourers of Calcutta. In his fervent wait to see India as an independent, federal and republic nation, he emerged as a charismatic and firebrand youth icon. He was admired within the congress for his great ability in organization development. He served several stints in prison for his nationalist activities during this time.
Dispute with the Congress
In 1928, during the Guwahati Session of the Congress, a difference of opinion surfaced between the old and new members of the Congress. The young leaders wanted a "complete self-rule and without any compromise’ while the senior leaders were in favour of the "dominion status for India within the British rule".
The differences between moderate Gandhi and aggressive Subhash Chandra Bose swelled to irreconcilable proportions and Bose decided to resign from the party in 1939. He went on to form the Forward Bloc the same year.
Although he voiced his dislike for the British often in his correspondences, he also expressed his admiration for their structured way of life. He met with the leaders of the British Labor Party and political thinkers including Clement Attlee, Harold Laski, J.B.S. Haldane, Arthur Greenwood, G.D.H. Cole, and Sir Stafford Cripps and discussed the possibilities that an independent India might hold.
Image Credit: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1800_1899/congress/netaji/troopreview.jpg
Formation of the INA
Bose vehemently opposed the Congress decision to support the British during the Second World War. With the aim to initiate a mass movement, Bose called out to Indians for their whole-hearted participation. There was tremendous response to his call “Give me blood and I will give you freedom” and the British promptly imprisoned him. In jail, he declared a hunger-srtike. When his health deteriorated, the authorities, fearing violent reactions, released him but put him under house-arrest.
In January, 1941, Subhash made a planned escape and reached Berlin, Germany via a detour through Peshawar. Germans assured him their full support in his endeavours and he gained allegiance of Japan as well. He took a perilous journey back east and reached Japan where he assumed command over 40,000 soldiers recruited from Singapore and other south East Asian regions. He called his army the ‘Indian National Army’ (INA) and led the same to capture the Andaman and Nicobar islands from the British and rechristened it as Shaheed and Swaraj Islands. A provisional “Azad Hind Government” started functioning in the captured territories. The INA or the Azad Hind Fauj stared for India and crossed Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18, 1944. Unfortunately, the tide of the World War turned and the Japanese and German forces surrendered which forced him to call off further advancement.
Image Credit: http://onlinemirrors.blogspot.in/2014/06/netaji-subhash-chandra-bose.html
Netaji disappeared mysteriously soon after the retreat. It is said that he went back to Singapore and met Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi, head of all military operations in South East Asia who arranged for him a flight to Tokyo. He boarded a Mitsubishi Ki-21 heavy bomber from Saigon Airport on August 17, 1945. The following day the bomber crashed shortly after take-off after a night halt in Taiwan. Witnesses report that Bose sustained intense third degree burns in the process. He succumbed to his injuries on Aug 18, 1945. He was cremated on August 20 in Taihoku Crematorium and his ashes were laid to rest at the Renk?ji Temple of Nichiren Buddhism in Tokyo.
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Bose’s comrades who were stranded in Saigon waiting to be transported never saw his body. Nor did they see any photographs of his injuries. They refused to believe that their hero was dead and hoped that he evaded detection by the British-American forces. They believed whole heartedly that it was just a matter of time that Netaji will gather up his army and conduct a march towards Delhi. Soon people began to report sighting of the hero and even Gandhi expressed his scepticism about death of Bose. Post-independence, people started to believe that Netaji had adopted an acetic life and became a Sadhu. The mysteries surrounding Bose’s death took upon mythic proportions and perhaps symbolized the hope of the nation.
The government of India set up a number of committees to investigate the case. First the Figgess Report in 1946 and then the Shah Nawaz Committee in 1956, concluded that Bose had indeed died in the crash in Taiwan.
Later, the Khosla Commission (1970) concurred with the earlier reports, the reports of Justice Mukherjee Commission (2006) said, "Bose did not die in the plane crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his". However, the findings were rejected by the Government of India.
In 2016, following the declassification of a report handed over by the Japanese government to the Indian Embassy in Tokyo in 1956, titled "Investigation on the cause of death and other matters of the late Subhash Chandra Bose" confirmed the Indian National Hero’s death in Taiwan on August 18, 1945.
Bose’s correspondences prove his faith in democracy in Independent India. Bose’s primary ideology was always the freedom of his motherland even if meant taking help from fascists like Mussolini or Hitler.
Image Credit: http://www.mourningtheancient.com/truth-bose16.jpg
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose has left deep impact on the psyche of his countrymen. His slogan, ‘Jai Hind’ is still used in reverence to the country. The International airport in Kolkata has been named Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport to commemorate the charismatic leader.
In Popular Media
Many documentaries, TV series and films have been made on the life of netaji. In 2004, revered director Shyam Benegal made a biopic ‘Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero’ that received immense critical acclaim in India as well as in international film festivals.